Environment or context of turfgrass is the surrounding conditions, the natural environment, human cultural landscape, and people and animals that use the landscape. While turfgrass management is specific periodic practices such as mowing, fertilization, and irrigation, there are external factors that may not be controllable but should be considered. Regional climate and microclimate factors such as shade of trees, soil type, wind, salt spray, and traffic must be considered in the planting and establishment of a turfgrass species and cultivar. Establishment of turfgrass involves a long-term commitment that may require site modification and other steps in orderly sequence starting with an objective and design for growing turf in contrast to other vegetation groupings such as groundcover. The success and suitability, or failure, of turfgrasses depends on site conditions, soil modification, and one-time design and construction decisions, including whether to use turfgrass or alternative vegetation such as groundcovers. Turfgrass exists in a human cultural context so it is interesting to consider historically how turfgrass became used and developed as a common element in some but not all societies.